Buddhism in Myanmar
In Myanmar, about 90% of the population is Buddhist
Theravada's widespread use in this country began under King Apirud (1044-1077) after he joined the Patan mont cities of southern Myanmar, whose population practiced Buddhism. From there Buddhist books were brought to the capital of Myanmar - Pagan - monks, architects and artists arrived. The construction of Buddhist monasteries is unfolding, religious texts, sacred relics are collected, theravada preachers are invited.
Theravada becomes the state religion of Patan, and the kingdom itself from the end of the 11th to the 13th centuries - the most important Buddhist center in the region. Since the second half of the XI century. in Patan, extensive temple construction was carried out (only in the city of Patan there are now about 2,300 religious buildings), monasteries are organized, canonical texts are produced, direct religious contacts between Patan and Lanka are expanded.
The strengthening of Buddhism in Patan during this period is associated with the name of the high priest of Myanmar, Shin Arakhan - a monk monk, the spiritual mentor of the first Nagani kings. The strengthening of the Buddhist church at the expense of the offerings of believers and the royal patronage led to the creation of a network of monasteries that became large landowners, owners of a large number of slaves and wealth.
The enrichment of monasticism led to an aggravation of relations within the sangha and the "forest brothers" of the Ari, who preached poverty and the abandonment of worldly goods, broke off from it. However, the Ari soon began to organize their own monasteries and by the 13th century. they were not much different from other Buddhists. After the fall of the Pagan state, the monasteries remained centers of Myanmar culture.
At the beginning of the 20th century, Buddhism began to play a major role in the struggle for the national liberation of Burma from English colonial rule
It was there that literate people concentrated in fragmented Myanmar, where Myanmar's literary language developed. The flowering of literature in the XV-XVI centuries. associated with the names of monks - famous poets and writers of Myanmar. The creation of the first organizations fighting for the rights of Burmese inhabitants took place under the slogan of protecting Buddhism, protecting national customs and culture, and led to the creation of Buddhist associations and GS A (General Council of Burmese associations).
Monasticism had a lot of weight in these organizations. Having no right to directly participate in politics, the monastic unions supported various political groups, setting up public opinion in favor of their allies. Buddhism along with Islam and Christianity is considered a world religion. This means that she is not determined by the ethnicity of her followers. It can be practiced by any person, regardless of race, nationality or place of residence.
One of the main goals of Buddhism is the path to nirvana. Nirvana is a state of awareness of one's soul, achieved through self-denial, the rejection of comfortable environmental conditions. Buddha, having spent a long time in meditation and deep thought, mastered the method of controlling his own consciousness. In the process of this, he came to the conclusion that people are very attached to worldly goods, overly worried about the opinions of other people. Because of this, the human soul not only does not develop, but also degrades. Having reached nirvana, one can lose this dependence.
In Buddhism, three jewels are distinguished. Buddha - it can be either the creator of the doctrine itself or his follower who has achieved enlightenment. Dharma is directly the doctrine itself, its foundations and principles and what it can give to its followers. The Sangha is a community of Buddhists who adhere to the laws of this religious teaching.
There is the concept of dukkha (suffering, anger, fear, self-flagellation and other negatively colored experiences). Each person is more or less influenced by dukkha. Dukkha always has a reason that contributes to the emergence of addiction - greed, vanity, lust, etc. You can get rid of addiction and suffering. One can completely free oneself from dukkha thanks to the path leading to nirvana. Buddha was of the opinion that it is necessary to adhere to the "middle path", that is, each person must find a "middle ground" between a secured, satiated luxury and an ascetic way of life devoid of all kinds of blessings.
Buddhism cannot be called only a religion, in the center of which is God who created the world. Buddhism is a philosophy, the brief principles of which we will consider below. The doctrine involves assistance in directing a person to the path of self-development and self-awareness. In Buddhism there is no idea that there is an eternal soul atoning for sins. However, everything that a person does and how will find his mark - this will surely return to him. This is not divine punishment. These are the consequences of all actions and thoughts leaving traces on their own karma.
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