Iceland travel. Summer House clouse to Eyjafjallajokull volcano. Iceland tourism

Volcanoes are famous for their destructive power

In the history of the Earth there are many eruptions that have led to serious damage and a large number of human victims

We can recall the activities of Santorini, which in the II millennium BC destroyed the Minoan civilization, or the explosion of Vesuvius, which destroyed the city of Pompeii and Herculaneum in the year 79. At the same time, volcanoes bring not only disasters and catastrophes, but also great benefits, having a significant impact on the life of our entire planet.

During volcanic eruptions, huge amounts of ash are ejected from their craters, which accumulate over vast areas around the summit. Depending on the chemical composition of the magma, this ash contains various elements and minerals. Soils on the slopes of volcanoes and in the adjacent valleys are very fertile. In Italy, the best harvests are harvested in the regions around Naples, where the activities of Vesuvius created optimal conditions for plant life. Another fertile region of the planet is the island of Hawaii. Between the 15th and 18th centuries, sweet potatoes were grown here in large numbers, which contributed to the flourishing of Hawaiian culture and the flourishing of local agricultural communities.

In volcanic rocks, precious metals (silver, gold, copper) and gems (opal, obsidian, agate) are often found. Scientists still can not accurately determine how diamonds are formed in the bowels of the Earth, but it is well known that these precious stones are carried to the surface by volcanic magma during the formation of kimberlite pipes.

Animals and plants in Iceland is not so much. Vegetation covers a quarter of the country, and trees occupy 1% of the area. Animals include reindeer, arctic fox, fox and mink, and seals and whales in coastal waters. There are also Atlantic Puffins here - funny red-billed birds that have become one of the symbols of the country. They can be seen and captured on small islands and sheer cliffs - birds are tame and are not afraid of people.

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Iceland travel. Summer House clouse to Eyjafjallajokull volcano. Iceland tourism.

The strongest volcanic eruptions are usually followed by a noticeable decrease in temperature in certain regions of the planet and even globally

A volcanic edifice 1666 m high with a peak covered with the sixth largest glacier in Iceland rises above the surrounding space, like an island. The eruption of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafyatlayokudl showed how the role of volcanoes and volcanic ash in people's lives varies with the development of human society, its technical capabilities, level of science, principles of morality and ethics.

The activity of volcanoes leads to the rise of bottom areas in the seas and oceans, with the result that new islands appear on a geographical map of the planet. The entire Hawaiian chain of islands was created by constant eruptions occurring in the mantle hot spot. Thanks to volcanoes, Micronesia, the Ryukyu Islands (between Taiwan and Japan), the Aleutian Islands (off the coast of Alaska), the Mariana Islands and the Bismarck Archipelago in the Pacific Ocean appeared.

In the Mediterranean, giant volcanoes built the Ionian Islands, Cyprus, Crete, and in the Caribbean Sea - Antilles. The emergence of unique plant and animal species in new land areas contributes to the creation of balanced ecosystems and the emergence of new levels of biodiversity. Another advantage of volcanism is the formation of geothermal fields with relatively high heat flux.

Fields with relatively low temperatures usually appear as a result of heating below active faults, and fields with high temperatures are associated with active volcanic activity. In such areas you can find hot springs, geysers, boiling mud pools, which are often popular tourist destinations. But, besides their natural beauty, they are invaluable as a source of geothermal energy. In countries such as Kenya, Iceland, New Zealand, the Philippines, Costa Rica and El Salvador, electricity produced in geothermal fields provides a significant portion of the state's energy supply.

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