Kara Dag sunrise. Our planet is very lucky - it is just created for the birth of life
Life on planet Earth was born and exists only thanks to the energy that the Sun gives us
Without liquid water, life as we know it would be impossible
The sun is the closest star to us from 400 billion stars in our Milky Way galaxy. The day will come when the sun will first burn and then swallow our planet. The sun slowly becomes brighter (higher luminosity) and its speed of rotation decreases. It is calculated that the young Sun had only about 70% of the brightness that it has now, and its equatorial rotation period was about 9 days, not 27 days, what it has now. A higher rotational speed probably caused more explosive activity on its surface. The sun seems to calm down on its level of activity, while at the same time its temperature, luminosity and size increase. It is predicted that after about 1.5 billion years, when the Sun is 6 billion years old, it will be almost 15% brighter than it is now.
Just a billion years ago, the amount of water on our planet was almost twice as large as now, and after a billion years there would be very little water on Earth. After one billion years, our sun will become much brighter. Oceans will begin to evaporate. Glaciers will disappear completely, the poles will turn into the tropics. Life can still be healthy. But the merciless "fierce" will not retreat anyway - as it warms up into space, hydrogen will evaporate, drying up the Earth and turning it into a desert. And then the reserves of hydrogen will also be exhausted at the Sun itself, which means that after 5 billion years it will begin to die. And it will do it beautifully - it will expand, having swallowed Mercury first, then Venus, and then it will reach Earth.
Thanks to the special arrangement of the cosmos of our Universe, chances were given to last as long as it took for the appearance of thinking creatures that could think about whether their mortal existence was accidentally or not from the point of view of wise sciences. This may sound ridiculous, but recently, scientists have been able to notice many interesting coincidences in the structure of the world.
If gravity in our Universe were only a million times stronger, this would not affect the properties of atoms and molecules. But a solar-type star in such a world would exist for only 10 thousand years - too little for life to arise. And a world with too weak gravity would have scattered after the Big Bang so quickly that the substance simply would not have time to become constricted in the dense gas clouds that give rise to the stars.
The light of the Sun, which we see today, is the result of thermonuclear reactions that occurred in the solar core more than a hundred thousand years ago
The mountains and our planet itself consist for the most part of the waste of long-dead huge stars. Modern theories believe that about 5 billion years ago, the Sun began to form from a huge dark cloud of dust and vapor, which included the remnants of earlier exploded stars. Under the influence of gravity, the cloud began to shrink and spin.
The compression ratio around the center was very large and a dense central core gradually formed. As the rotational speed increased to maintain the angular momentum, the outer parts of the formation began to level off. Dust particles and vapor near the outer edge of this formation were less dense and they rotated around their own center in the same direction as the parent cloud.
They were doomed to become the Earth and other planets of our solar system. Most species of living organisms that have ever lived on Earth have long since died out on their own or died in natural disasters. The very first mass extinction of animals occurred about 450-440 million years ago. It is impossible to name the exact cause of extinction, but most scientists are inclined to believe that the Gondwana movement, the huge supercontinent that included almost the entire land of the Earth, was to blame.
Gondwana has moved close to the south pole of the planet, which has led to a global cooling, and as a result, a drop in world sea level. Most of the animals at that time lived in the water, and the fall in the level of the world's ocean destroyed or damaged the habitats of most species of the Ordovician and Silurian period.
Proton and neutron appeared shortly after the Big Bang, later atomic nuclei arose. A free proton (hydrogen nucleus) is either absolutely stable or decays with such a low probability that physicists have not yet discovered these processes. But the free neutron on average lives only a quarter of an hour, giving rise to a proton, electron and antineutrino. Intranuclear nucleons can exist until the end of time, but can also turn into each other and live no more than a split second, it all depends on their environment (beta decay).
A free neutron could not give rise to a proton, if it were not somewhat more massive, this follows from the law of conservation of energy. The difference is very small, only 0.14%. If nature cut the neutron mass by only 0.2%, the consequences would be sad: protons in a single state would turn into neutrons, positrons and neutrinos. Therefore, stars that could, at the first stage of their existence, feed on the energy of thermonuclear synthesis of helium from hydrogen could not be ignited in the Universe. But this is not the only nuisance: positrons that arise would annihilate with electrons, giving rise to hard gamma radiation. Outer space would be filled with isolated neutrons, neutrinos, gamma rays, and possibly a small number of stable light nuclei, most likely deuterium and helium. Such a world could not have become the cradle of life.
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