Kremlin, Moscow, Russia
Major attractions of the historical part of Moscow
The Moscow Kremlin is the largest surviving fortress in Europe
At first it was a small fortification on an area of about nine hectares, where the inhabitants of the suburbs located behind the walls of the fortress could hide under the threat of an enemy attack. Over time, the gardens grew, with them the fortress also grew. The new walls of the Kremlin were built during the reign of Ivan Kalita. They were inside stone, and outside they were wooden and plastered with clay.
The Earthquake of 1446 and fires damaged the Kremlin walls. The consequence of this was the new restructuring of the Kremlin during the reign of Ivan III. For the construction they invited Italian masters, recognized specialists in fortification, who used the advanced achievements of Italian and Russian art of military engineering at the time. But they were no longer just building a fortress, the holy city was built. In the underground part under the whole territory, under each of the towers, they created a very complicated system of labyrinths and secret passages. They were discovered by archaeologist N.S. Shcherbatov in 1894, but in the twenties of the XX century, photographs and drawings disappeared.
The height of the walls of the Moscow Kremlin from five to nineteen meters, depending on the terrain
They have a top continuous course around the perimeter. Its width is two meters. Outside the stroke is protected by teeth, so it is not visible. In the array of walls built 19 towers. Together with the remote tower, there are 20 of them in the Moscow Kremlin. The corner towers of the Kremlin have a many-sided or round shape, the rest are quadrangular. The towers acquired their own modern look in the 17th century, when tent and longline completions were built over them. As a result of all the restructuring, the Kremlin acquired the look of a fortress - impregnable and formidable.
Napoleon, fleeing from Russia, ordered the Moscow Kremlin to be blown up. Mines laid under buildings, walls and towers. Some explosions were prevented, thanks to the Russian patriots, but, nevertheless, significant destruction did occur. After the enemy French troops were driven out of the country, the Russians began to rebuild the ruined palaces, towers and walls, then added the Armory and the Grand Kremlin Palace.
In those days, the Moscow Kremlin was accessible to the public. Visitors entered the territory through the open Spassky Gate. The architectural complex of the Moscow Kremlin includes 4 palaces and 4 cathedrals, the Southern wall extends to the Moscow River, the eastern wall to Red Square, and the north-western one to the Alexander Garden. Currently, the Kremlin is an independent administrative unit within Moscow.
Like any ancient, historical structure, the Moscow Kremlin has its own secrets, legends associated with it, and often quite dark secrets. Most of these legends are associated precisely with the Kremlin dungeons. Since their exact map was lost a long time ago (perhaps it was destroyed by the builders themselves), many subways, corridors and tunnels of the Moscow Kremlin are still not fully understood.
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