Mexico travel. Anicent mayan pyramid (Pyramid of the Magician, Adivino ) in Uxmal, Merida, Yucatan. Mexico vacations
The ancient city of Uxmal. Pyramid of the Wizard in Uxmal
Uxmal is an ancient Mayan city in Mexico
The Mexican city of Uxmal from the time of the Maya Indians will give travelers special pleasure, because today it is not just a pile of well-preserved ruins. Most of the sights of Uxmal were carefully studied and carefully restored, which allows us to present the monuments of antiquity in their true splendor. Thanks to such mysterious cities like Chichen Itza, Teotihuacan and Uxmal, Mexico attracts inquisitive tourists who want to plunge into the fascinating history of ancient civilizations.
In the north-west of the Yucatan Peninsula, 70 km from Merida, among the low stony Puuk hills, lies the ancient city of Uxmal, which has been well preserved to this day. From the Mayan language, Uxmal translates as "three times built" and the symbolic name suggests that there were three periods in the life of an ancient Indian settlement, but nevertheless the exact date of construction of the city and the stages of its growth and development have not been established.
The most impressive buildings of the ancient complex are the famous pyramids. There are two pyramids that make the Uxmal city unique: the Pyramid of the Wizard and the Great Pyramid. The wizard's pyramid is the highest in the city. Its height is 38 meters. It is unique in that it has not a square shape at the base, but an ellipse shape. The pyramid consists of five parts, each of which was built one on top of the other. The top is crowned with the premises of the temple, where religious rituals were performed and sacrifices were offered to deities. Two steep stairs lead to the summit, the ascent of which is forbidden for tourists.
The most ancient period of the history of Mexico dates back to a time that is 15 centuries from the new era. At that time, the Olmec civilization existed on the territory of the modern Mexican state, which was replaced by one of the most powerful empires of the time - Maya. In the XIV century. here was formed the last powerful civilization of pre-Columbian America - the Aztec empire, which existed until the arrival of the Europeans. The first European, Francisco Fernandez de Cordoba, set foot on this land in 1517. After only 20 years, Mexico became a colony of Spain, and the local people were forcibly converted to Christianity.
Mysterious pyramids of Uxmal
Unfortunately, the history of the city is little known. The purpose of many buildings is unknown, the meaning of some buildings is incomprehensible in general, and the names of structures are invented by the Spaniards and do not reflect the true essence of things. In addition, Uxmal is the only city in Yucatan that does not have wells. Residents had to collect rainwater into underground cistern wells and preserve it until the next rain.
The complex water supply system of the city operated in Uxmal, part of it still works. It is in Ummal on each wall that the image of the rain god Chuck is found. Uxmal is the best representative of the architectural style puuk, characterized by many details. This style is sometimes called Native American Baroque. The figures of deities, stone mosaics, images of people are characteristic of this style.
Uxmal provides the rarest opportunity to review the details. Although the date of Ushmal's origin is unknown for sure, but based on artifacts found in it, archaeologists believe that from the 6th to the 9th centuries of the modern era, it reached its highest point of prosperity and power, occupied an area of 37 square kilometers and numbered about 25,000 inhabitants.
Due to the rather dry climate of the region and high-quality building materials, many buildings of the city are well preserved to this day and give a clear idea of the features of its architecture. The archaeological excavations in these places began the expedition of Franz Blom in 1929. Currently, the ruins of the ancient city of Uxmal are listed on the UNESCO World Heritage List and are one of the most interesting and historically valuable architectural monuments of Mexico and a prime example of Mayan culture.
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