Nizhny Novgorod. Kremlin
Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin: history and attractions
The Kremlin is the heart of the old Russian city
From here begins its history, the enemies are trying to capture the place and defenders are desperately defending. Nowadays a tourist seeks to get here. One of the most beautiful Russian strongholds is the Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin.
In 1221, Vladimir-Suzdal Prince Yuri Vsevolodovich founded Nizhny Novgorod. The nature as if specially created a place, the most favorable for construction: a high hill over the Volga near the place where the Oka flows into it. A magnificent overview of the Trans-Volga distances opens from here, and the presence of two great rivers connected the new city with other cities of Vladimir-Suzdal Russia. Originally, the city was surrounded by moats and ramparts of Earth and wood. In 1225 the first stone cathedral, the Transfiguration of the Savior, was founded. And in 1227 - Michael the Archangel, also stone.
Rarely any Russian city in those days was so rich as to build two stone cathedrals at once. In the middle of the 14th century, when Nizhny Novgorod became the capital of an independent appanage princedom, an attempt was made to build a stone wall. Alas, nothing has survived from it to this day. At the end of the 15th century, the Russian state was faced with several tasks - the strengthening of the eastern borders and the development of territories down the Volga.
In 1500 new stone walls were laid. In 1505 towers with artillery were built. In 1508 or 1509, Pyotr Fryazin, a renowned Italian architect who participated in the construction of the Moscow Kremlin, arrived at the construction site. Therefore, it is no coincidence that the Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin is so similar to the Moscow one. From 1515, the Kremlin in Nizhny Novgorod became the main outpost of the Moscow kingdom against the Kazan Khanate.
Tourists can come to Nizhny Novgorod many times and discover something new for yourself every time
Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin was surrounded by a 2-kilometer wall with 13 four-tiered towers. In addition, the entire urban area was surrounded by a 7-kilometer Earthen rampart, reinforced with a log wall. A dry moat was dug in front of the Kremlin walls. It is not surprising that despite the fact that in the XVI century, the enemies had repeatedly besieged the Kremlin, they could not take it. In 1612, the people's militia, led by Minin and Pozharsky, started its way to Moscow from here.
Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin can rightly be called the soul and heart of the city. No matter what street you go, you will always go to the Kremlin. It was here that the border of the Russian lands passed and it was from here that the Russian influence spread further. The Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin looks majestically if approached from the direction of Pochinsky Street. Two round towers will appear before the eyes of tourists: Taynitskaya and Ilinskaya. Impassable strongholds look from here Kremlin.
The Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin is the most significant historical and architectural landmark of the city and its oldest part, the historical center of the city, around which a tourist area has formed. Within walking distance is most of the other attractions and museums of the city; here come the pedestrian street Bolshaya Pokrovka and the historical street. Christmas; The Minin and Pozharsky Square adjoins closely, where during public holidays festivals and open-air concerts are held.
It seems to be a classic of the genre - walls closed with a ring with defensive and watch towers, high ramparts, deep ditches around. Nevertheless, some historians believe that the Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin is one of the most advanced fortifications for its time. In the war against the Kazan Khanate, the Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin becomes the main outpost of the Russian army, its walls are strengthened with stone. Throughout history, he has never been captured by the enemy.
Today you can get inside the Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin: From Minin and Pozharsky Square through the Dmitrievskaya Tower, on the dome of which there is a coat of arms of the city (the main entrance gate has always been here). From Pozharsky Street over the bridge across the Nikolskaya Tower, also through the gate, which is next to the Pantry Tower. From the embankment through the Ivanovo Tower. Between the North and Clock towers. By the way, you can take a walk not only inside the Kremlin, but also outside. Along the entire perimeter there is a paved road with stunning panoramas.
From the side of the Unity Square there is a staircase leading to the top of a high shaft. The climb is pretty steep. Already halfway through, you begin to understand how small the chances were for the attackers at this fortress. In addition, from the observation deck you can see the full power of the two-kilometer ancient fortress walls, reaching 15 meters in height. They, along with 13 towers that have survived to this day, are a unique attraction of the Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin. Since the Kremlin is located on a hill, its powerful red brick walls lie on an inclined surface from the top to the bottom of the ramp
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