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How to get to the Arctic to the polar bears? Russia, Wrangel Island.
Polar bear professionals are few in the world
Wrangel Island is perhaps the least visited and closed natural reserve, which is located 140 km off the northeast coast of Siberia. On the island there is a real bear kindergarten: several hundred female polar bears gather here in the winter to give birth and raise young. The gradual transition to the seasonal release of the Arctic from ice, on the one hand, simplifies human activities. The thinner the ice cover and the smaller the area it has, the easier shipping. At the same time, climate change upsets the ecosystem. For example, polar bears and seals need ice to rest and hunt. And plankton during heating of the upper layer of the ocean can begin to multiply uncontrollably.
From the port of the city of Anadyr regularly ships go where you can buy a ticket - the tour includes the opportunity to sail as close as possible to the polar bears. But also to walruses, gray whales, musk oxen and other arctic animals. And polar poppies that look just amazing among the eternal snows. The season begins in early August and ends in mid-September. The easiest way to get to the reserve is with a tour: they usually last for two weeks.
The Arctic is huge. This is exactly the problem of scientific programs. In Greenland, for example, almost all bears have already been counted, collars are hung for them, this happens all the time in Svalbard, it happens in Alaska, it happens in Canada, but it is impossible to count them in the Russian Arctic. Polar bears are dispersed here in a huge space.
In the Arctic, global warming is more pronounced than in other places on the planet. Each year, the ice recedes a little closer to the North Pole. Reducing the ice cover leads to even greater warming and, consequently, further melting of the ice. This vicious circle is explained by the fact that ice reflects sunlight, and water, on the contrary, absorbs and accumulates heat. According to the forecasts of climatologists, by the end of the 21st century in the Arctic there may be no ice that holds all year round. This imbalance is caused by the peculiarities of the circulation of air masses in the Arctic region.
Polar bears from Spitsbergen in Norway come to Russia to Franz Josef Land. This is one population. It is amazing what spaces they are able to overcome
The only opportunity to visit the Wrangel Island Biosphere Reserve is a cruise aboard the ship Spirit of Enderby. You will have the opportunity to see walruses and bears. The route passes in the place of feeding of whales and thousands of bird markets. The island has the highest variety of arctic flora. You will also get to know the culture of the locals and pass through the legendary Bering Strait.
During the tour, many landings are planned to touch the wild nature - to see the white owls, Arctic terns, rogues, seals, walrus, strong musk oxen and herds of reindeer. Also, be very careful not to miss a single polar bear, because the island is the birth center of these owners of the Arctic. During the expedition, interesting landings are waiting for you to explore the coastline, which not many have even seen. Looking for walruses, you can meet locals who live in this harsh climate, hunt seals, as well as their ancestors.
The polar bear is on the list of rare species that WWF deals with. On the island of Vaigach, the foundation is working to create a national park, which will enhance the protection of the polar bear and provide jobs for the local population, because some of these people are poachers. According to the experience of creating other specially protected areas, former poachers can be very good defenders of nature, just need to give them such work.
Biodiversity plays an important role in all ecosystems. Biodiversity is the variety of life on Earth. It includes all organisms, species and populations, genetic variations, complex communities of communities and ecosystems, as well as their relationship to the environment. Quantifying biodiversity is quantitatively difficult, even using current available tools and data sources. But accurate answers are rarely needed in order to sufficiently understand the essence of the phenomenon, how it changes, as well as the causes and consequences of any changes.
In the Arctic In the second half of September there is usually the least ice. At this time, the ocean actively accumulates heat from the sun. But if cold air comes from the pole or from Greenland, it takes part of the heat. And vice versa: the flow of warm air from the mainland enhances the heating of the ocean. Scientists called this mechanism seasonal memory: winter ice cover depends on atmospheric conditions the previous summer. Since the 2000s, air currents have slowed the summer warming of the ocean in the American and accelerated in the Eurasian Arctic. As a result, in the autumn, ice was formed late in weeks and did not reach the same thickness and area as before.
To describe and explain climate changes in the Arctic, the researchers collected data on the temperature and composition of water at different depths, as well as temperature and humidity, wind and other weather and climate characteristics in two polar regions. In addition to the fact that the area of ice is reduced, the share of perennial ice has been falling for the last 30 years. This is ice that has survived at least one summer without melting. It is thicker and has a different structure compared to the annual. Due to partial thawing in summer, water flows out of the ice and carries away dissolved salts. As a result, pores filled with air appear in perennial ice. Thick porous ice better insulates the ocean from heat and prevents heat.
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