Antarctic tourism. Pure Antarctic ice. Antarctica cruise - vacation travel photos

Most of the surface of the globe is occupied by the waters of the oceans

The continent of Antarctica is washed by the Pacific, Indian and Atlantic oceans

During a cruise to Antarctica, you may be lucky to walk past a graveyard of icebergs - small remains of majestic massive boulders that still stick out of the sea, but will subsequently be washed away with water until they completely dissolve into it. Why do people go to the ends of the Earth? This incredibly beautiful breathtaking sight that will remind you of the transience of our lives.

The Antarctic ice sheet has the shape of a dome. Powerful ice cover has a huge mass. Plastic ice masses flow down from the center to the periphery, forming a convex shape. Icy Antarctica is the highest continent of the Earth. Icebergs are considered to be one of the most bizarre and beautiful creations of Antarctica. Sunlight, refracting in the facets, makes them glow turquoise and azure colors. This marvelous spectacle is not as durable as the sparkle of precious stones: any iceberg will melt sooner or later. But he can live for decades, hitting the game of light. Inside icebergs tunnels and caves are formed.

In 2000, the largest iceberg of 11,000 square kilometers broke off from Antarctica. This is more than Jamaica! Iceberg is an ice block that can form off the coast of Antarctica. From this place begins their journey to the fortieth latitudes of the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian oceans. These areas of the oceans are not very popular among sea carriers, because their main routes go through the Panama and Suez Canals. However, the size of icebergs and their number here are much higher than those of the northern hemisphere.

Tabular ice floes is the result of the process of breaking off large areas of ice shelves. Their structure can be very different: from the firn to glacier ice. The color characteristic of the iceberg is variable. A freshly split has a white matte shade due to the large proportion of air in the outer layer of compressed snow. Over time, the gas is displaced by drops of water, because of which the iceberg is painted in a light blue color. Large tabular iceberg is a very massive ice block.

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Antarctic tourism. Pure Antarctic ice. Antarctica cruise - vacation travel photos

Icebergs form in Antarctica when large ice blocks are chipped off from the ice shelf

From the interior of the ice dome ice gradually spreads to the outskirts. From the edge of the ice sheet in the summer, huge blocks of ice break off in the form of canteens and pyramidal icebergs and slip into the water, and then they are carried away by currents into the ocean. The ice cover in Antarctica is constantly replenished due to the precipitation of snow and its subsequent crystallization on the ice surface. On average, about 200 mm of precipitation falls annually. And in the central regions of the mainland, their number is several tens of millimeters.

From the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, the marginal seas of the Weddell, Bellingshausen, Amundsen, and Ross extend into the coast of the continent. Large areas of marginal seas are covered with ice shelves, which are a continuation of the continental ice shell. The ice sheet of Antarctica has existed for at least 40 million years. Icebergs, especially table-like, are characteristic of the southern polar region. In the northern circumpolar regions, icebergs are more rare, among them icebergs of relatively small size of outcrops and surface glaciers prevail. Since the formation of an iceberg of any kind, the process of its destruction has been continuously taking place, especially actively in the marine part of the ocean. Numerous forms of icebergs - pyramidal, oblique, rounded, with arches, rams - arise when they are destroyed. Oblique icebergs are a characteristic initial form of destruction, especially offshore table-like icebergs. A sunken underwater terrace, seeking to emerge, raises one edge of the iceberg. Inclined icebergs are distinguished by high altitude. The duration of the existence of icebergs in Antarctic waters averages about 2 years.

Pyramidal iceberg is the result of ice landslides. They are distinguished by a peak with a sharp end and a considerable height above the surface of the water. The length of ice blocks of this type is about 130 m, and the height of the surface part is 54 m. Their color differs from table-like ones in a soft greenish-bluish tinge, however, darker icebergs are also recorded. In the thickness of the ice there are significant inclusions of rocks, sand or silt that fell into it during the movement around the island or continent.

The shape of an iceberg depends on its origin: Icebergs of outlet glaciers have a table-like shape with a slightly convex upper surface, which is dissected by various types of irregularities and cracks. Characteristic for the Southern Ocean. Icebergs of surface glaciers are distinguished by the fact that their upper surface is almost never level. It is somewhat inclined, like a shed roof. Their sizes, in comparison with other types of icebergs of the Southern Ocean, are the smallest. Icebergs of ice shelves, as a rule, have significant horizontal dimensions (tens and even hundreds of kilometers). Their height is on average 35-50 m. They have a flat horizontal surface, almost strictly vertical and even side walls.

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