In Russia, the largest forest reserves in the world, the forest area is more than 800,000 hectares
The forest occupies about 45% of the territory of Russia and makes up about 24% of the reserves of the entire planet Earth
The main part of the forests of Russia is located in Siberia and the Far East and their development for many reasons is very difficult. In the European part of Russia, their share is much smaller and, therefore, special attention should be paid here to reforestation and strengthen control over logging. The southern regions and lowland areas of the tundra are the poorest. Russia is the largest country in the world, and for this reason, there are many natural zones on its territory, in which various types of trees grow. The forests of Russia, depending on the predominance of certain tree species, are divided into four main types: coniferous forests; deciduous forests; mixed forests; small-leaved forests.
The most common forests in Russia are coniferous, such as larch, pine, spruce and cedar. But in the European part, deciduous and mixed nevertheless are more common, there are much more common oaks, maples and Russian birch trees sung by many classics. The most common forest-forming tree species are spruce, larch, pine, cedar, oak, maple and hornbeam. In the forests grows a lot of berry bushes, mushrooms, valuable herbs, as well as countless species of fauna.
Weather conditions determine the flora of Russia. The temperate continental climate prevails in the coniferous forest zone. Winters are dry and cold, and last for an average of six months. Short summers are warm and humid, with numerous cyclones. In the fall and spring, as a rule, only one month is allotted. Conifers are not demanding on temperature extremes. The representatives of the animal world feed on moss, lichen, bark and cones. High forest crown protects animals from winds, and the branches provide an opportunity to build nests. Typical representatives of the fauna of coniferous forests are vole, hare, Siberian weasel, chipmunk. Of the large mammals, the Siberian tiger, the brown bear, the lynx and the elk can be noted, and the reindeer comes from the forest-tundra zone to the coniferous forests. Eagles and vultures hover in the sky.
Humanity destroys nature. Humanity has caused more than 500 plant species to be wiped off the face of the earth since the mid-18th century. This conclusion was made by scientists who studied and combined data from the Red Book and various scientific literature. In their opinion, the number of extinct species may be much larger, because some of them are simply unknown so far, and some species are already on the verge of extinction.
The forest is not only a source of wood, it has huge reserves of mushrooms, berries, fruits, medicinal herbs, flowers and many more useful things and goodies
But people often forget that the forest belongs not only to them - it is a home for a huge number of animals, birds, insects and other living creatures. Cutting down huge areas of trees, we must not forget to restore them. The most important task of people is to love the forest, observe the rules of fire safety and protect this generous gift of nature. Coniferous forests of Russia are located in the natural zone of the taiga, and occupy about 70% of the total forest area of the country. This zone is known for its low temperature and humid air. Coniferous forests stretch from the western borders of Russia to the Verkhoyansk Range. The main forest-forming species are spruce, pine, fir and larch. In the conditions of a harsh winter, mixed forests are most often encountered: dark coniferous and light coniferous. Evergreen tree species are well developed. Their photosynthesis begins in spring with the onset of favorable weather conditions.
The undergrowth in the taiga is practically absent. Here the podzolic soil and many swamps. Coniferous plants drop needles, which, when decomposed, release into the ground toxic compounds for many plants. The Earth is covered, as a rule, mosses and lichens. Shrubs and flowers mainly grow along the banks of rivers, in dark places there are very few of them. It is found lingonberry, juniper, mountain ash, blueberry and curly lily.
The territory of deciduous forests stretches from the western border of Russia to the Ural Mountains. The main tree species are beech, oak, elm, linden, maple and hornbeam. Multi-tiered forests: the upper tier is replaced by a canopy and undergrowth, which, in turn, are herbaceous plants and forest floor. The soil is covered with mosses. There are areas in which lush crowns completely exclude undergrowth. Foliage, decaying, decomposes and forms humus. The land in the undergrowth is rich in organomineral compounds.
Recent studies show that the first mushrooms appeared on Earth from 715 to 810 million years ago. This is about 300 million years earlier than previously thought. The origin and evolution of representatives of the kingdom of mushrooms is still mysterious and poorly understood. To date, scientists have been able to identify only 2% of the species of these organisms. Because of their structure, it is extremely difficult to find fossil representatives of this kingdom and to distinguish them from other microorganisms. So far, the oldest proven fossil mushrooms have been around 460 million years old. Scientists have discovered the remains of fungal mycelium - mycelium - in rocks whose age ranges from about 715 to 810 million years. These ancient breeds were found on the territory of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and belong to the period when life on Earth was still in its infancy. These fossils were found in the transition zone between water and land. According to scientists, this fact means that mushrooms were important partners of the first plants when they just began to colonize the planet's surface 500 million years ago.
What causes plants to disappear? The vitality of animals has been studied much better than plants, but scientists are well aware of the causes of their extinction. The main one, of course, is human activity. People are destroying their natural habitats and growth in order to expand agricultural areas. Because of this, more than a million species of living organisms are currently threatened with extinction, and some of them may disappear in the next decade. Reducing the number of plant species is also affected by climate change.
The rich diversity on land that we see today around the globe is far from new: the diversity of life on land has not changed at least over the past 60 million years ago. Recall that dinosaurs became extinct about 65 million years ago. According to a new study conducted by scientists, the number of species in ecological communities on land increased only sporadically during geological time. The rapid growth of diversity was followed by plateaus that lasted tens of millions of years. We take for granted that we live on a planet rich in life. With 14 million species identified, the huge biodiversity on Earth is simply amazing. We depend on this diversity in food and resources, which, in turn, allows us to flourish and spread across the planet. However, one has only to leave the limits of the fragile atmosphere of the Earth, and these symbiotic relationships will cease to exist.
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